Throttle

How can I throttle messages to ensure that a specific endpoint does not get overloaded, or we don’t exceed an agreed SLA with some external service?

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Use a Throttler that controls the rate how many or fast messages are flowing to the endpoint.

Options

The Throttle eip supports 6 options, which are listed below.

Name Description Default Type

expression

Required Expression to configure the maximum number of messages to throttle per request.

ExpressionDefinition

correlationExpression

The expression used to calculate the correlation key to use for throttle grouping. The Exchange which has the same correlation key is throttled together.

ExpressionSubElementDefinition

executorServiceRef

To use a custom thread pool (ScheduledExecutorService) by the throttler.

String

timePeriodMillis

Sets the time period during which the maximum request count is valid for.

1000

String

asyncDelayed

Enables asynchronous delay which means the thread will not block while delaying.

Boolean

callerRunsWhenRejected

Whether or not the caller should run the task when it was rejected by the thread pool. Is by default true.

true

Boolean

rejectExecution

Whether or not throttler throws the ThrottlerRejectedExecutionException when the exchange exceeds the request limit Is by default false.

Boolean

description

Sets the description of this node.

DescriptionDefinition

Using Throttle

The below example will throttle messages all messages received on seda:a before being sent to mock:result ensuring that a maximum of 3 messages are sent during a running 10-seconds window slot.

from("seda:a")
  .throttle(3).timePeriodMillis(10000)
  .to("mock:result");

To use 10-seconds window we set the timePeriodMillis to ten-thousand. The default value is 1000 (i.e. 1 second), meaning that setting just throttle(3) has the effect of setting the maximum number of requests per second.

To throttle by 50 requests per second, would look like this:

from("seda:a")
  .throttle(50)
  .to("seda:b");

And the examples in XML:

<route>
  <from uri="seda:a"/>
  <throttle timePeriodMillis="10000">
    <constant>3</constant>
  </throttle>
  <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>

And to throttle 50 message per second:

<route>
  <from uri="seda:a"/>
  <throttle>
    <constant>50</constant>
  </throttle>
  <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>

Dynamically changing maximum requests per period

The Throttler uses an Expression to configure the number of requests. In all the examples from above, we used a constant. However, the expression can be dynamic, such as determined from a message header from the current Exchange.

At runtime Camel evaluates the expression and converts the result to a java.lang.Long type. In the example below we use a header from the message to determine the maximum requests per period. If the header is absent, then the Throttler uses the old value. This allows you to only provide a header if the value is to be changed:

from("seda:a")
  .throttle(header("throttleValue")).timePeriodMillis(500)
  .to("seda:b")

And in XML:

<route>
  <from uri="seda:a"/>
  <throttle timePeriodMillis="500">
    <!-- use a header to determine how many messages to throttle per 0.5 sec -->
    <header>throttleValue</header>
  </throttle>
  <to uri="seda:b"/>
</route>

Asynchronous delaying

You can let the Throttler use non-blocking asynchronous delaying, which means Camel will use a scheduler to schedule a task to be executed in the future. The task will then continue routing. This allows the caller thread to not block and be able to service other messages, etc.

In Java DSL you enable asynchronous delaying using asyncDelayed as shown:

from("seda:a")
  .throttle(100).asyncDelayed()
  .to("seda:b");

And in XML:

<route>
  <from uri="seda:a"/>
  <throttle timePeriodMillis="100" asyncDelayed="true">
    <constant>100</constant>
  </throttle>
  <to uri="seda:b"/>
</route>

Rejecting processing if rate limit hit

When a message is being throttled due the maximum request per limit has been reached, then the Throttler will by default wait until there is free space before continue routing the message.

Instead of waiting you can also configure the Throttler to reject the message by throwing ThrottlerRejectedExecutionException exception.

from("seda:a")
  .throttle(100).rejectExecution(true)
  .to("seda:b");

And in XML:

<route>
  <from uri="seda:a"/>
  <throttle timePeriodMillis="100" rejectExecution="true">
    <constant>100</constant>
  </throttle>
  <to uri="seda:b"/>
</route>

Throttling per group

The Throttler will by default throttle all messages in the same group. However, it is possible to use a correlation expression to diving into multiple groups, where each group is throttled independently.

For example, you can throttle by a message header as shown in the following example:

from("seda:a")
  .throttle(100).correlationExpression(header("region"))
  .to("seda:b");

In the example above messages a throttled by the header with name region. So suppose there are regions for US, EMEA, and ASIA, then we have three different groups, that each are throttled by 100 messages per second.

And in XML:

<route>
  <from uri="seda:a"/>
  <throttle>
    <constant>100</constant>
    <correlationExpression>
      <header>region</header>
    </correlationExpression>
  </throttle>
  <to uri="seda:b"/>
</route>