Not every processor is managed, and thus not all are visible in JConsole.
A processor must implement the org.apache.camel.Service to be managed. Most EIP processors do this.
From Camel 2.6 onwards your custom Processor should use the Spring JMX annotations (for Camel 2.9 onwards see the tip box below). Just add @ManagedResource to the class, and the other annotations for the attributes and operations. Then Camel will automatically use those when the processor is being registered in JMX.
The same applies when using beans in your routes.